Posts Tagged ‘LED’

Follow along, and see if this sounds familiar…

In the process of designing a new light, you begin by collecting manufacturer data sheets. You rifle through the LED data to find lumen output for LEDs and select one with a rated lumen output of 390@700mA, 3000K CCT / 90CRI (test current), and 188 lumens per LED at 350mA (calculated value), @ 3.4 Vf, for 158 lumens per watt. Nice!

You calculate what you need to make the target 1000 output lumens, and design a product around the data and calculations, use 7 LEDs operated at 350mA, to include 30% over the target to compensate for optical losses and temperature per the manufacturer data sheets. Using first article parts to build a prototype, you send it off to the photometric lab, expecting to see results very close to what you calculated. You can live with a minimum of 900 lumens, but hope to see better than 1000, as the data provided by the component providers indicates this should be the case.

Your expectations are based on the following:

  • The LED data sheet says the LEDs can produce 188 lumens at 50mA
  • 188 lumens x 7 LEDs = 1316 lumens, providing 30% more than the desired end result
  • The optical data sheet claims an efficiency of 92% (8% loss)
  • The driver data sheet shows 97% efficiency at 350mA / at a voltage range of 18 to 34Vf, with a rating of 12W (covering the string voltage of 23.8 Vf – with a calculated watts load of 9.8W)
  • CCT selected is 3000K by LED data sheet, 90 CRI
  • Your LED case temperature tested at 40°C after 20 minutes, which the manufacturer data sheet shows minimal lumen loss, well within expectations and over-design of 1504 lumens.
  • Calculated and expected results >1000 lumens, 9.8W, 102 lm/W.

The results you are expecting

  • Luminaire total lumens 1100+
  • Watts with driver loss 10 +/-
  • Lm/W = 108+
  • CCT = 3000 / CRI = >90

The lab results come in, and you anxiously open the file and discover the following:

  • Luminaire total lumens 620.6
  • Watts load 8.7
  • Lm/W = 71
  • CCT = 2850 / CRI = 88.5
  • Measured LED case temperature 66°C
  • LED ambient temperature under the optic is 40°C
What happened?

There are numerous variables that come into play that will trim effective luminaire output from expectations built around manufacturer data sheets. Here are a few that this example will have suffered from:

  1. CCT is a generalized term. Actual LED CCT’s vary. Further, optical systems can impart a warming of LED color by as much as 200CCT. Operating LEDs at reduced current will also cause warming of CCT.
  2. CRI is an averaged value, and will vary somewhat by LED bin or production run.
  3. The actual LED lumens from purchased reals of product produce 167.32 lumens at 25°C Tj – a loss of 11% based on bin group purchased.
  4. The LED manufacturer data is based on tests of cherry picked LEDs strictly held to a Tj of 25°C, in an ambient temperature of 25°C, for a duration of 20 milliseconds – The actual LED case temperature of the LEDs was 66°C, with an ambient of 40°C, resulting in a junction temperature of 77°C – Result is a de-rated LED output of -15%.
  5. The LED manufacturer data is based on tests of LEDs that have never been populated onto a board, so have not experienced the thermal cycling processes involved there. One thermal cycle reduces the measured LED output by 7%.
  6. The driver manufacturer data assumes an ambient temperature of 25°C, operation at exactly 120VAC, operating at the maximum Vf. – Actual driver operating conditions are 42°C ambient – resulting in an efficiency loss of 3%
  7. The actual driver output is not 350mA, it is actually 340.4 mA, which is within the +/- 5% tolerance, for a current and LED lumen loss of 3%.
  8. The actual LED string voltage measures 22.4, indicating the LED Vf is 3.2, not 3.4 as shown on the data sheet – for a loss of 6% energy through the LEDs reducing lumen output
  9. The driver actually delivers 21.97Vf when connected to an LED string presenting a voltage drop of 22.4Vf while maintaining the output of 340.4mA, for a loss of LED lumens of 2%.
  10. The driver efficiency rating of 97% is at full load. The load connected in the design is 62%, resulting in a measured actual efficiency of 89%.
  11. The optic used has a measured efficiency of 97%, but that is based on simulated data derived from the manufacturers design software. Actual optical efficiency measures 88%, for a loss of 9%.

Add this all up and you get:

  • Lumen loss from actual LED lumens vs. manufacturer data = 33% (188 x .67 = 125.96)
  • Lumen loss from thermal conditions at the LED from manufacturer data sheet to actual applied conditions = 15% (125.96 x .85 = 107.066)
  • Lumen loss from driver under-current / under-voltage conditions = 9% (107.066 x .91 = 97.43)
  • Lumen loss due to actual optical efficiency = 9% (97.43 x .91 = 88.661)
  • Loss of driver efficiency due to ambient condition = 3% (.97 x .97 = .949)
  • Loss of driver efficiency due to low load condition = 8% (.949 x .92 = .873)

Total actual lumens per LED = 88.661
Total luminaire lumens = 620.63
Actual driver LED load = 7.625
Total driver efficiency at actual load = .873
Actual driver watts at 120VAC = 8.733
System lumens per watt = 71.07 lm/W

 What now?

The next step is to adjust current to the LEDs to push output up to 500mA, and get the following:

Total actual lumens per LED = 120.243
Total luminaire lumens = 841.70
Actual driver LED load = 10.9
Total driver efficiency at actual load = .903
Actual driver watts at 120VAC = 12.07
System lumens per watt = 69.73 lm/W

Now what?

The following is what happened:

  • The higher current increased LED output, but increased heat as well, so lumen increase was less than the increase in current supplied. The result is less than expected output increase and lower efficacy.

So, you push the LED to its maximum test current of 700mA and get:

Total actual lumens per LED = 159.59
Total luminaire lumens = 1117.13
Actual driver LED load = 16.3
Total driver efficiency at actual load = .88
Actual driver watts at 120VAC = 18.53
System lumens per watt = 60.28 lm/W

Now what happened?
  • More current increased heat even more, in both LED points and ambient inside the luminaire
  • The higher current increased the driver LED load beyond the original driver selected, requiring a change from a 12W capacity driver to an 18W capacity, which has a lower efficiency when loaded at 16.3W.
  • The composite of heat and driver selection compounded to reduce efficacy, but increased lumen output to exceed the design target.
The solution?

There are several:

  1. Lower expectations. The original target is obviously pushing the limits of the LED configuration selected. There is no solution to resolving the difference between manufacturer data and actual performance, this is simply the reality of this technology.
  2. Search for higher efficacy LEDs, more efficient optics, and higher efficiency drivers. An improvement of 10% at the driver, 5% in the optics and 10% at the LED will produce the following results:

Total actual lumens per LED = 144.3 (@ 500mA)
Total luminaire lumens = 1010.1
Actual driver LED load = 12.6
Total driver efficiency at actual load = .93
Actual driver watts at 120VAC = 13.55
System lumens per watt = 74.55 lm/W

  1. Further improvements in thermal design may also produce additional gains in efficacy by increasing lumen output without adding any additional power.

This is a common issue with designing LED products. Data sheet values simply do not stack up as they might seem and represent values that are not representative of application conditions. This applies to LEDs and drivers alike and will vary by product lot as well.

Then what happens is…

So, you dig around and find even better LEDs and drivers, have a custom optic made that reduces power and produces the best total package. Perhaps not at the 100lm/W you wanted, but close. Customers love it and you can make a profit from it, so off to market you go!

About this time, you will receive a notification from the LED manufacturer that their new version of the LED you are using will be discontinued at the end of the year, to be replaced with a Gen MCMVLXX product that will produce higher lumens by 10%, and operate at 3.1 Vf, while operating at a higher Tj temperature with less lumen loss.  The driver manufacturer will also send notification that it is out of stock on the driver selected, with no firm date when their Chinese vendor will deliver new inventory. The optic manufacturer will then announce that the optic you chose is not compatible with the Gen MCMVLXX LED update, but are working on it. This all means re-testing and re-evaluating all of the decisions made before, and potentially necessitating revisions to UL listing and investigations that could lead to re-testing there.

Welcome to the world of LED product design and development! 

Seriously, while this exploration is fictitious, it does represent the variables that make designing around component manufacturer data unpredictable, if not completely unreliable. There are some take-away’s from this:

  • Never assume you will get the lumens out of an LED that are shown in data sheets. Read all of the data and make corrections that more closely resemble actual application conditions – then subtract another 15% to be safe.
  • Never assume that drivers will deliver exactly the name-plate current and Vf. When in doubt, test the selected product under the conditions it will be used under. Also note that efficiency numbers are generalizations that rarely match actual application conditions. The only way to know what the exact efficiency is, is to test load the driver in question with the intended LED / LED array.
  • Never assume that optical manufacturer efficiency data is correct, or even based on actual test data. The difference in realized optical efficiency and manufacturer data can be significant.
  • Thermal conditions, for the driver as well as LED have a large impact on lumen production and system efficiency. You cannot have a system operate at too low a temperature. Also, remember that data provided is rarely realistic to actual application conditions, so this alone will have a significant impact on system performance.
  • A last side note: Verify system performance under all line voltages anticipated. Just because a driver functions at 120VAC on a bench for 5 minutes, does not mean it will work at 277V after 12 hours continuous operation. Dimming issues are far more common at high voltage (277V) than they are at 120VAC, so test at both, through the entire dimming range.
  • Oh, yeah… dimming driver are notoriously bad at holding efficiency, even at full brightness – and fall off as the product is dimmed from there.

Before we get into this topic, let’s remember that history is filled to overflowing with cries of lighting technology destroying human health. When the incandescent lamp emerged, the gas light industry flooded the market with baloney about its harmful effects (including claims that electric lights caused women to get the vapors), in support of the healthful glow of gas lighting (gag). Fluorescent and HID technologies have been under attack from their very first introduction. It’s quite funny to see now the defense of HPS by LED detractors, as it has been the target for criticism for decades. My advise for the apoplectic LED detractors… take a very deep breath and get over it. Every light source carries with it a compromise, including daylight, with undesirable effects we must do our best to mitigate. I suggest to anyone interested in the processes of new lighting technology: An interesting read on the 60 years it took to get lighting off the gas. That said… (more…)

Bridgelux has announced the End of Life for the BXRA product. This is the product that put this company on the map, and has been very popular. The company is now hawking its me-too product platforms, along with its proprietary Vero product. I for one will never again consider a proprietary platform from Bridgelux. I am also sure they will experience a significant number of defections as customers find their way resolving the disruption the end of the BXRA platform will cause. I know this, as I intend to help every customer of mine, and anyone else interested, to find a path to other provider products.

(more…)

While designing cool lighting products is fun and all that, there are other areas of lighting development I am involved with. Whether it is UV curing of resins and plastic parts, inspection lights, or special single spectrum light sources and task lighting, it all comes under the umbrella of lighting for me. In this case, it’s about light measurement, particularly in an easy to use, and simple to set up for gathering data for use during product development, as well as verifying and evaluating design changes in process.

This goniometer delivers a simple to use platform for in-house testing of a wide range of luminaire configurations

This goniometer delivers a simple to use platform for in-house testing of a wide range of luminaire configurations. The meter can be located anywhere from 24″ to 96″ from the optical center of the luminaire.

While large scale, accredited LM-79 photometry demands  the use of expensive and sophisticated test gear beyond the reach of most organizations smaller than a conglomerate, a great deal of accurate data can be gained from simpler platforms. In the past I created a simple desktop Type C goniometer for customers who were creating small light source scale products.

An earlier example of a bench-top system was designed for testing of small light engines and LED optics, shows the same basic configuration in smaller scale.

An earlier example of a bench-top system was designed for testing of small light engines and LED optics, shows the same basic configuration in smaller scale.

Since then, I’ve built others with similar purpose for manufacturers setting up in-house test facilities on tight budgets. Having access to a goniometer, where tests and experiments can be carried out as part of in-house design operations can be a very valuable tool. It is also an excellent tool for quality inspections, and establishing variations on test results obtained from accredited labs.

For this specific instance, the requirement was for a system for testing fixtures that might be as large as 24″ in height, and up to 48″ in length, with intensities ranging from small low power sources to high intensity optically focused products. The design is basically the same as for the desktop unit, but scaled up to accommodate the larger scale of the luminaires to be tested.

Note that this is a horizontal Type C, which rotates the fixture around a fixed vertical axis, as well as the horizontal axis. This is a common approach to general lighting products, and can produce Type B results as well. However, since every test fixture is mounted with the light source aimed horizontally, including downlights, the results need to be revolved in creating usable IES files to reflect the actual luminaire orientation in use. Further, with SSL products, care must be taken to avoid including errors in light output that might result from thermal effects of mounting a vertically oriented product in the horizontal position for testing. However, in the 9 years I have been testing fixtures in this type of lab setup, I have not found this to be of significant concern. I have also devised methods for revolving the output data to create the appropriate IES formatted file for end use lighting application studies.

The other aspect of making this type of lab setup affordable, is the use of inexpensive light meters. While those in the business of accredited lab testing will scoff at the idea of using footcandle meters or hand held spectrometers for this type of application, I have found, in back-to-back testing, the results of tests done in house are within a maximum range of between +2% to -10% of those attained by independent lab testing services. Meanwhile, tests accomplished back to back between accredited labs using the same luminiares, has returned variations of +5% to -8%, while the variations in actual installed applications have been far greater due to the variance in surrounding reflective surfaces, condition of fixtures, variations between fixtures manufactured, and other factors outside the confines of the fixture designs themselves. So, while I am not saying this simple lab gear will replace independent test lab results (it won’t), I am saying that, if the operator is careful about setting up the test, diligent in detailing the data, and verifying his/her results, tests completed in-house, during design and between designs, can be reliable and valuable, and a significant cost and time saving advantage. The single largest variable that independent and accredited test labs bring to the table is consistency in process, and independent non-biased reporting for end user application. This is not always necessary for every test completed during and after designs are completed.

Rotation of the vertical axis is accomodated using a CNC rotary table and ring bearing base.

Rotation of the vertical axis is accomodated using a CNC rotary table and ring bearing base.

 

Fixture mounting is the a second CNC rotary table with T-slots to attache adapter plates.

Fixture mounting is the a second CNC rotary table with T-slots to attache adapter plates.

The meter attachment post can accomodate any instrument the customer might want to use, from simple light meters for quick tests, to more involved spectroradiometric testing.

The meter attachment post can accomodate any instrument the customer might want to use, from simple light meters for quick tests, to more involved spectroradiometric testing.

I have applied a wide range of meters to these types of test rigs. This includes the $100 Probe Fc meters through the more sophisticated Orb Optronix Spectrometer. The more expensive meters do deliver greater fidelity, the ability to capture multiple reading samples for averaging to eliminate error, etc..  However, I have also found that instruments like those I covered in the meter review, all delivered very similar end results. The use of the UPRTek, or Asensetek meters deliver the layer of reading color over angle in addition to standard footcandle readings, which is very useful in LED fixture evaluation. To create a candela distribution table, I use MS Excel and some simple inverse square law calcs.

For this latest creation, I have includes a rail based meter mount, as well as a rail for the vertical fixture platform. This makes setup much easier, in that moving the meter and the luminaire mount along the rails maintains alignment of the two to one another. Rotation of the luminaire in the vertical and horizontal axis is accomplished using CNC mini-mill rotary tables, actuated by remote control. These can be rotated in increments as small as .006 degrees, with 2.5, 5 and 10 being the most commonly used. The vertical axis rotation table is mounted to a large diameter rotary bearing, which can support 600 pounds.

A laser alignment tool insures the fixture rotational center is aligned with the meter sensor

A laser alignment tool insures the fixture rotational center is aligned with the meter sensor

A laser line tool attachment alingns the fixture rail with the meter rail to assure squareness of the setup

A laser line tool attachment alingns the fixture rail with the meter rail to assure squareness of the setup

With the meter post/rail aligned and the fixture center aligned with the meter sensor, the rig is ready to mount and test the actual luminaire sample.

With the meter post/rail aligned and the fixture center aligned with the meter sensor, the rig is ready to mount and test the actual luminaire sample.

This latest rig I also includes alignment tools. One is mounted to the center of the fixture horizontal axis  (a modified rifle bore sight) aimed at the center of the meter’s receptor window. The other (contractors laser line tool) is located on the rail below – emitting a vertical line for checking the zero position of the vertical axis rotating table. With these two in alignment, the rig is set to go. Mount the fixture using adapter plates to the horizontal axis, set the optical source to the center of the vertical axis, light it up and the temperature to stabilize, and start testing.  A typical test for in-house use can take less than 20 minutes after the fixture has reached its operating temperature (2 to 24 hours to taste).

There are other small additional components involved. I personally like to connect the test products to a reliable power source. The easiest way to gain this is using a UPS generally used to connect computers to. They are affordable, and offer much more reliable and consistent voltage output than wall plugs do. I also add temperature measurement (a simple Amp two position meter works for most applications – one for ambient, one for fixture hot spot), and in some case room heaters or coolers to attain a stable ambient temperature where this is not inherent to the lab itself.

So that’s it. An affordable in-house Type C test rig. Not a light source, but related to development of them. I use a similar setup for my own product development, along with a cannon style integrating chamber, a small integrating sphere, and  some other cobbled together test rigs that have proven to be accurate for relative comparison of results to a known standard.

Plants are becoming big fans of LED light, thriving on the delivery of the light they need, without the waste of white light they don’t even see.

The use of LEDs in agricultural applications is expanding along side visual light and light cure technologies. The technology is even more compelling here for its reduction in energy consumption and lack of heat in the light pattern. The key element of LEDs in this application is the ability to create a specific spectral power profile, with none of the peripheral light unnecessary to get the job done. The light plants need is not the same as human vision. In fact, it is almost the opposite. While we humans with our juice camera eyeballs respond to light in the yellow-green spectrum to see by, our blind little green friends use light in the red and blue ends of the spectrum to activate various chemical reactions to generate food, build cells, and dispose of waste. (more…)

A little industrial chique tribute to 2015 Year of Light.

A little industrial chique tribute to 2015 Year of Light.

Actually, this started as a rough lab test experiment applying thermal transfer pipes (copper pipes filled with water) to move heat from an LED platform to a simple back plane surface. The experiment included bending the pipes, soldering them using silver bearing solder, and operating the system at various angles to see the effect these had on performance. Somewhere along the line, an idea formed of making this into a wall piece, creating an industrial-chic, which led to adding a cut down reflector, and using the SLA printer to create an industrial tech representation of a flame rising from the reflector. The square cut in the diffuser aligns with the connected graphic on the back plane, and the stenciled number 15 simply represents the year.

The graphic alignment with the diffuser negative space connects the back-plane to the foremost diffuser component.

The graphic alignment with the diffuser negative space connects the back-plane to the foremost diffuser component.

The driver is housed in the FDM printed housing below the light source on the back plane, with a dimmer. Total power to the source is 19W, while the LED is 95CRI 3000K. Note that the overly red hue to the background, and slight magenta appearance of the white graphics are all issues with the camera dealing with the red-enhanced LED source, which creates high CRI, with a 90 R9 value, but in reality is a distortion of spectral power that the human eye does not readily see – but mid-range camera image sensor algorithms cannot accommodate.

The diffuser is intended to interpret a flame, or gas light sock.

The diffuser is intended to interpret a flame, or gas light sock.

 

The thermal pipes move 19W of energy from the LED platform to the back-plane - which is where the whole project started.

The thermal pipes move 19W of energy from the LED platform to the back-plane – which is where the whole project started. Cutting the back half of the reflector out provides light to the wall and plate surface.

With the thawing of the midwest ice age, comes days on the bike once again.

With the thawing of the midwest ice age, comes days on the bike once again.

With the arrival of spring, I am once again longing for a rip on the open road and a little wind in the face with the rap of a high strung 4 banger UJM hot rod under me. But, let’s apply a little context as it relates to this years 52/52 project. While the previous works pursued in 2010 were focused on off-the-cuff works, with the majority being task lights, this year I am not remaining within those narrower bounds. For 2015, I’m going to present application of LEDs and SSL technology wherever I find a place for it, in actual applications, including, but not limited to lighting applications. There is a simple reason for this. My interest and pursuit of solid-state lighting integration is not bound to architectural lighting, it also includes UV curing and artistic application and, in this case, recreational uses.

This overview shows all of the solid-state updates that have been applied to the project. Note also that the rest of the bike has been heavily cut, stretched, slammed, etc....

This overview shows all of the solid-state updates that have been applied to the project. Note also that the rest of the bike has been heavily cut, re-made, modified, stretched, slammed, etc…. Not much remains of the original, although its original spirit remains visible.

Over the last several years I have been on a quest to convert all of the incandescent lamps out of an ongoing WIP motorcycle project.  It seemed simple enough, as there are many made in Asia LED products sold through motorcycle retailers. The problem is, when you dig into them, they are either complete junk, weak performers, or did not fit the design of the project in hand. Nowhere did this become a major challenge more than the headlight. Motorcycle headlights serve two purposes – to light the way at night, and to create a daylight presence that catches the attention of motorists who are blind to bikes (some of the more mentally challenged motorists in this world see what they expect to see – which are cars – they are literally blind to seeing bicycles, motorcycles, animals, etc… so run over, drive in front of, and crowd these invisible obstacles out of their path.)

The LED lamp kit, with its heat sink and fan is a clever solution and just fits in the headlight housing.

The LED lamp kit, with its heat sink and fan is a clever solution and just fits in the headlight housing.

Compounding the issue of effective forward lighting, motorcycles, especially older ones like the one I am working on (1979), have fairly wimpy electrical charging systems, so voltage delivered to headlights tends to sag, delivering less light and warmer CCT’s. It seemed a perfect fit for application of LEDs operated from a current control driver, as this could eliminate the output droop from voltage drop, as well as increase the CCT of the light output to optimize visual performance and presence on the road. Unfortunately. sifting through the myriad of garbage being sold as LED H4 lamp replacements took some time, and included evaluation of several alternatives, many deemed useless scams. I discovered that without some form of cooling system, the LED bulbs either were not delivering enough light, or were operating at such a high temperature, they were likely to fry themselves and fail in less time than the halogen lamp I sought to rid myself of. However, over the course of this winter, several new lamps came into the market that are looked promising. While not yet perfect, I found one that not only fit well, but delivered more light than the original halogen lamp. I was finally able to finish the LED conversion project this week, ending a two-year effort at last. The new system presents a load of 12W or 14W, replacing the 55/60W H4 Halogen lamp, while measured light output is increased by 15% (at full battery voltage, significantly more when the battery voltage is lower). The lamp includes an active heat sink and fan to keep it cool, which I found in bench testing worked surprisingly well. In fact, the thermal slug-to-heat sink is very similar to a design I have used in several product designs with similar optical demands. Not really wild about the fan, so will keep an eye on that, but its necessary to produce the output and longevity I was looking for.

The headlamp incorporates LEDs for turn indicators as well, within the lamp itself.

The headlamp incorporates LEDs for turn indicators as well, within the lamp itself.

In addition to forward , the headlamp integrates the turn signals. At the right and left side are amber LEDs embedded into the lamp reflector, which serve as turn signals and emergency flashers. At the center is the H4 LED conversion lamp, which incorporates a current driver, cooling fan, and controller circuiting that maintains full light output, even when battery/system voltage drops to as low as 9.8V. The tail-light includes red LEDs and a controller that and white LEDs with a clever resister/bypass circuiting that lights all of the LEDs at a lower intensity for standard tail-light function, then brighter when the brake light is active. The rear turn signals are a Frankenstein creation of mine that includes custom interior bits to integrate proper Amber LEDs into the bullet shaped housing originally designed for a small incandescent lamp –  I was unable to find any off-market products that had the brightness I wanted.

The tail light and rear turn signals tuck in nicely with the rear of the bike as it now sits, looking like it was all supposed to be where it is.

The tail light and rear turn signals tuck in nicely with the rear of the bike – looking like it was all supposed to be where it is.

The turn signal conversion to LEDs created an issue with the flasher system. Flashers in older vehicles are nothing more than a thermal cutoff switch that auto re-sets. When on, an internal leaf or coil heats up, breaking the circuit (off state), which then cools quickly and re-connects (on state). These are “tuned” to operate with a closed circuit, which an incandescent lamp provides. The load of the lamps in the circuit creates a resistance, which the flasher is tuned to, creating a flash rate based on how much voltage is present in the system based on how many incandescent lamps (acting like resistors) are in the circuit. This is why the flashers blink faster when a lamp is lost – increasing the voltage in the flasher “heater”, causing it to heat faster, thus, blink at a faster rate.   Well… LEDs do not create a closed circuit for this process to work with. This requires either placing a resister into the system to create a closed circuit load similar to the original incandescent lamps (seems kind of silly), or replacing the flasher itself with some other modulating device that can blink without the closed circuit connection. Motorcycles present a few odd wiring flukes that complicate this, so the solution requires a little custom hacking. In my case, I was able to find a flasher kit from an on-line electronics kit outlet, that was then modified to work within the bikes wiring system. Problem solved.

In the end, the compelling reason for this entire conversion included several desired advantages. Incandescent lamps on vibrating motorcycles is a bad thing, LEDs don’t suffer this malady so no more constantly burned out bulb issues. Incandescent lamps present a load to relatively feeble motorcycle power and charging systems. The LED conversion reduced the load on the charging system and battery system from 94W to just 26W total, which allows the charging system to be used by the ignition system, at a more constant output voltage – while delivering brighter lights all around, and decreasing the time it takes to recharge the battery after starting. The LED headlamp conversion also increased the headlamp CCT from 3150K to 6500K, which is more visible during the day to numb-skull cage drivers, and increased visual performance while riding at night.

LEDs are not the only thing I spend time fiddling with.  Torturing this bike is a nice release of creative frustration.

LEDs are not the only thing I spend time fiddling with. Torturing this bike is a nice release of creative frustration, and a place to practice with other tools, bleeding from knuckles, etc…

With this conversion, I am now down to just a few CFL and T8 lamps in the shop and garage, and just (2) halogen/filament lamps remaining in my home and work spaces. These will soon be gone as this years 52/52 projects puts them in the cross-hairs. Stay tuned….